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IPO
1) What is IPO
2) About Public Issues?
3) More about Book Building?

1) What is IPO?
An initial public offering, or IPO, is the first sale of stock by a company to the public. A company can raise money by issuing either debt or equity. If the company has never issued equity to the public, it's known as an IPO.

An IPO is also sometimes known as "going public." Technically, an IPO is the offering to sell but virtually all IPOs result in all the stock offered being sold. IPOs are generally managed by companies that specialize in handling IPOs and have experience in determining what the likely IPO offering price should be. If the IPO manager determines that the stock will not sell at an offering price that is acceptable to the company, the application for an IPO is usually withdrawn until a better time. As soon as all shares of an IPO have been sold, the stock is now tradable through stock exchanges or specialists that trade in the stock and the stock price may go up or down.

Basis of Allotment or Basis of Allocation is a document publishes by registrar of an IPO to stock exchanges and IPO investors. This document provides information about final price fixed for an IPO, issue subscription (bidding) information or demand of an IPO and share allocation ratio.

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2) About Public Issues?
Corporates may raise capital in the primary market by way of an initial public offer, rights issue or private placement. An Initial Public Offer (IPO) is the selling of securities to the public in the primary market. This Initial Public Offering can be made through the fixed price method, book building method or a combination of both.


There are two types of Public Issues


ISSUE TYPE OFFER PRICE DEMAND PAYMENT RESERVATIONS
Fixed Price Issues Price at which the securities are offered and would be allotted is made known in advance to the investors Demand for the securities offered is known only after the closure of the issue 100 % advance payment is required to be made by the investors at the time of application. 50 % of the shares offered are reserved for applications below Rs. 1 lakh and the balance for higher amount applications.
Book Building Issues A 20 % price band is offered by the issuer within which investors are allowed to bid and the final price is determined by the issuer only after closure of the bidding. Demand for the securities offered , and at various prices, is available on a real time basis on the BSE website during the bidding period.. 10 % advance payment is required to be made by the QIBs along with the application, while other categories of investors have to pay 100 % advance along with the application. 50 % of shares offered are reserved for QIBS, 35 % for small investors and the balance for all other investors.


3) More about Book Building?
Book Building is essentially a process used by companies raising capital through Public Offerings-either Initial Public Offers (IPOs) or Follow-on Public Offers (FPOs) to aid price and demand discovery. It is a mechanism where, during the period for which the book for the offer is open, the bids are collected from investors at various prices, which are within the price band specified by the issuer. The process is directed towards both the institutional as well as the retail investors. The issue price is determined after the bid closure based on the demand generated in the process.

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The Process:
• The Issuer who is planning an offer nominates lead merchant banker(s) as 'book runners'.
• The Issuer specifies the number of securities to be issued and the price band for the bids.
• The Issuer also appoints syndicate members with whom orders are to be placed by the investors.
• The syndicate members input the orders into an 'electronic book'. This process is called 'bidding' and is similar to open auction.
• The book normally remains open for a period of 5 days.
• Bids have to be entered within the specified price band.
• Bids can be revised by the bidders before the book closes.
• On the close of the book building period, the book runners evaluate the bids on the basis of the demand at various price levels.
• The book runners and the Issuer decide the final price at which the securities shall be issued.
• Generally, the numbers of shares are fixed; the issue size gets frozen based on the final price per share.
• Allocation of securities is made to the successful bidders. The rest get refund orders.


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